Being a Faithful and True Witness

Being a Faithful and True Witness

According to the Scriptures, being a witness for Christ is, in most respects, synonymous with martyrdom. While not all Christians face literal martyrdom in their lifetime, the call to carry a cross is a call to each and every one of us. Jesus Christ was the first true and faithful Martyr (Rev. 1:5), and all Christians should […]

Irenaeus of Lyons on the Greek Old Testament

Irenaeus of Lyons on the Greek Old Testament

In the twenty-first chapter of the third book Against Heresies, St. Irenaeus of Lyons addresses the translation of Isaiah 7:14 among Ebionites and Jews. In doing so, he underlines the antiquity and importance of the Greek translation of the Old Testament as inherited by the apostolic Church. By the end of the second century (A. D.), two […]

What is the Orthodox Church?

What is the Orthodox Church?

Properly speaking, there is no such thing as “the Orthodox Church.” This is used by convention to refer to a body of fourteen autonomous, local churches, united by a common faith, worship, and Eucharistic fellowship. Each of these local churches together comprise the one holy, catholic, and apostolic Church of Jesus Christ. In recent memory, the […]

Justin Martyr on the Greek Old Testament

Justin Martyr on the Greek Old Testament (The Septuagint)

Considered one of the ‘Apostolic Fathers’—a Saint who lived within the lifetime of the first seventy apostles of Jesus Christ—Justin Martyr is one of the earliest, and most important Christian apologists. Spending much of his life searching for truth in Greek philosophy, St. Justin (commemorated June 1) was introduced to Christianity by a learned elder who showed him the superiority […]

The Strength of Oral Tradition

The Strength of Oral Tradition

In a world characterized by the rationalism of the Enlightenment and the instant knowledge of Google, it’s hard to believe things have not always been so. In the ancient world, ideas, customs, stories, and even history were committed primarily not to books, but rather memorized through both poetry and song. They were preserved through oral tradition. And of […]

Theosis and Justification in Paul’s Second Letter to the Corinthians

Theosis and Justification in Paul's Second Letter to the Corinthians

Reading the Bible as an Orthodox Christian post-Protestantism can be difficult. Even as one’s views of God, Christ, sin, and salvation dramatically shift, old reading habits can stubbornly persist. More than once I have encountered converts who simply have no idea how to read St. Paul consistently with the Orthodox faith. I believe that such a […]

Israel and the Church: Why Does It Matter?

Israel and the Church: Why Does It Matter?

There is an effort among many Christian scholars today to revise the traditional approach to the question of Israel’s identity. These scholars argue that the Church must be subtly distinguished from the ‘actual Israel’ in order to do justice to the voice of the Old Testament. But I will argue that this position must be rejected, not simply because it […]

Strangers in a Foreign Land: Nationalism and the Orthodox Church

Strangers in a Foreign Land: Nationalism and the Orthodox Church

In calling the Church ‘catholic,’ Orthodox Christians confess belief in a Church for all ages, nations, and races. The Catholic Church is whole, complete, and lacking nothing—for this is what ‘catholic’ truly means. It is a calling for all, and Christ our God is sacrificed ‘on behalf of all, and for all.’ There is often confusion—especially for […]

Interview with Timothy Michael Law, author of ‘When God Spoke Greek’

An Interview with Timothy Michael Law, author of 'When God Spoke Greek'

When God Spoke Greek (Oxford, 2013) is an outstanding and accessible introduction to the Septuagint (or ‘LXX’), the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. Dr. Law is an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (Germany) and a Junior Research Fellow at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies. Law also serves as editor-in-chief […]

The Canon of Christ

The Canon of Christ

For the earliest Christians—the first two generations or more—the ‘Bible’ was what we now call the Old Testament. The ‘memoirs of the apostles’ and four canonical Gospels spread more widely by the middle of the second century, but before this there was no consensus on which scriptures of the New Testament were canonical. This is […]