Irenaeus of Lyons on the Greek Old Testament

Irenaeus of Lyons on the Greek Old Testament

In the twenty-first chapter of the third book Against Heresies, St. Irenaeus of Lyons addresses the translation of Isaiah 7:14 among Ebionites and Jews. In doing so, he underlines the antiquity and importance of the Greek translation of the Old Testament as inherited by the apostolic Church. By the end of the second century (A. D.), two […]

A Thin Veil Between Heaven and Earth

A Thin Veil between Heaven and Earth

As faithful Christians, believing the scriptures to be reliable and true, we are called to pray to both saints and angels. There are a number of biblical passages which suggest the following: Some of God’s people, both on earth and in heaven, have the ability to see and hear things which happen far away. Based […]

Justin Martyr on the Greek Old Testament

Justin Martyr on the Greek Old Testament (The Septuagint)

Considered one of the ‘Apostolic Fathers’—a Saint who lived within the lifetime of the first seventy apostles of Jesus Christ—Justin Martyr is one of the earliest, and most important Christian apologists. Spending much of his life searching for truth in Greek philosophy, St. Justin (commemorated June 1) was introduced to Christianity by a learned elder who showed him the superiority […]

Israel and the Church: Why Does It Matter?

Israel and the Church: Why Does It Matter?

There is an effort among many Christian scholars today to revise the traditional approach to the question of Israel’s identity. These scholars argue that the Church must be subtly distinguished from the ‘actual Israel’ in order to do justice to the voice of the Old Testament. But I will argue that this position must be rejected, not simply because it […]

Interview with Timothy Michael Law, author of ‘When God Spoke Greek’

An Interview with Timothy Michael Law, author of 'When God Spoke Greek'

When God Spoke Greek (Oxford, 2013) is an outstanding and accessible introduction to the Septuagint (or ‘LXX’), the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. Dr. Law is an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (Germany) and a Junior Research Fellow at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies. Law also serves as editor-in-chief […]

Orthodox Mysteries in the Old Testament

Orthodox Mysteries in the Old Testament

The Orthodox conversion rites—Chrismation, Baptism, and the holy Eucharist—are a fulfillment of priestly types or shadows in the Old Testament. Just as Israel was a nation of priests (Ex. 19:6), so too is the new covenant Church (1 Pet. 2:9). A description of priestly consecration can be read in Leviticus, mirroring the conversion rites for […]

A Book of the People: Judaism and the Canon of Scripture

A Book of the People: Judaism and the Canon of Scripture

As is certainly the case today, Judaism was not a monolithic religion in the first century. Limiting ourselves to even the New Testament witness, there are various, competing sects—such as the Pharisees and Sadducees—who disagreed over everything from the resurrection to the proper interpretation of God’s law. Alongside these doctrinal differences was a debate regarding […]

The Temple Cult and Early Christian Worship

The Temple Cult and Early Christian Worship

The Judaism of the first century was a religion almost entirely centered around the sacrificial worship of the temple. Faithful pilgrims traveled many miles from all around the diaspora to worship at the temple several times a year, and the temple was central to their faith and piety. While various forms of post-Christian Judaism today […]

Appropriating the Academic Study of Scripture from an Orthodox Perspective

Appropriating the Academic Study of Scripture

When I first studied Orthodoxy, I had long been studying contemporary Biblical scholarship. The history of the Church was foreign to me, and the revelation that the canon of Scripture emerged out of the history of that same Church (thus making Sola Scriptura self-contradictory)—along with the revelation that Patristic theology resembled Catholic and Orthodox theology […]

The Signature of God

The Signature of God

Years before Jesus was ever born, the Holy Spirit inspired one of His prophets to tell the future, and to write down some things which had not happened yet. In this prophecy, we hear about someone who claims to be the Son of God, and who is tortured, and is condemned to a shameful death. […]